Detoxification – what is it?

Detoxification – what is it?

OK, this is quite technical, but quite handy to know as background to how your liver works:

The liver is one of the most important organs in the body when it comes to detoxifying or getting rid of foreign substances or toxins. The liver neutralizes a wide range of toxic chemicals, both those produced by your own body and those from the environment.

One of the liver’s primary functions is filtering the blood. Almost 2 quarts of blood pass through the liver every minute for detoxification. Filtration of toxins is absolutely critical as the blood from the intestines contains high levels of bacteria, and various other toxic substances. When working properly, the liver clears 99% of the bacteria and other toxins during the first pass.

Bile Excretion

The liver’s second detoxification process involves the synthesis and secretion of bile. Each day the liver manufactures approximately 1 quart of bile, which serves as a carrier in which many toxic substances are dumped into the intestines. In the intestines, the bile and its toxic load are absorbed by fibre and excreted. However, a diet low in fibre results in inadequate binding and reabsorption of the toxins.

Phase I and Phase II Detoxification

The liver’s third role in detoxification involves a two-step process, Phase 1 and Phase 2. If the phases are out of balance, as in Gilbert’s Syndrome where Phase 2 is impaired, then you are more sensitive to toxins.  These toxins not only include drugs, pesticides, and toxins from the gut, but also normal body chemicals such as hormones and inflammatory chemicals (e.g. histamine) which become toxic if allowed to build up.

Phase I enzymes directly neutralize some chemicals, but most are converted to intermediate forms that are then processed by phase II enzymes. These intermediate forms are much more chemically active and therefore more toxic.

Phase II detoxification typically involves ‘conjugation’. Conjugation is where various enzymes in the liver attach small chemicals to the toxin. This conjugation (or binding together) reaction either neutralizes the toxin or makes the toxin more easily excreted through the urine or bile. Phase II enzymes act on some toxins directly, while others must first be activated by the phase I enzymes. There are essentially six phase II detoxification pathways:

· Glutathione conjugation, Amino acid conjugation, Methylation, Sulfation, Acetylation and , Glucuronidation – this last one is impaired in GS sufferers.

Glucuronidation

Glucuronidation, the combining of glucuronic acid with toxins, requires the enzyme UDP-glucuronyl transferase (UDPGT). Many of the commonly prescribed drugs are detoxified through this pathway. It also helps to detoxify aspirin, menthol, vanillin (synthetic vanilla), food additives such as benzoates, and some hormones. Glucuronidation appears to work well, except for those with Gilbert’s syndrome.

The activity of UDPGT is increased by foods rich in the monoterpene limonene (citris peel, dill weed oil, and caraway oil). Methionine, administered as SAM, has been shown to be quite beneficial in treating Gilbert’s syndrome.

Nutrients needed by phase II detoxification enzymes

Glutathione conjugation: Glutathione, vitamin B6

Amino acid conjugation: Glycine

Methylation: S-adenosyl-methionine

Sulfation: Cysteine, methionine, molybdenum

Acetylation: Acetyl-CoA

Glucuronidation: Glucuronic acid

phase II detoxification enzymes can be encouraged by :

Glutathione conjugation: Brassica family foods (cabbage, broccoli, Brussels sprouts); limonene-containing foods (citrus peel, dill weed oil, caraway oil)

Amino acid conjugation: Glycine

Methylation: Lipotropic nutrients (choline, methionine, betaine, folic acid, vitamin B12)

Sulfation: Cysteine, methionine, taurine

Acetylation: None found

Glucuronidation: Fish oils, cigarette smoking, birth control pills, Phenobarbital, limonene-containing foods

phase II detoxification enzymes can be blocked or slowed down by:

Glutathione conjugation: Selenium deficiency, vitamin B2 deficiency, glutathione deficiency, zinc deficiency

Amino acid conjugation: Low protein diet

Methylation: Folic acid or vitamin B12 deficiency

Sulfation: Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (e.g. aspirin), tartrazine (yellow food dye), molybdenum deficiency

Acetylation: Vitamin B2, B5, or C deficiency

Glucuronidation: Aspirin, probenecid

Gilbert’s Syndrome and medication processing

http://www.sydpath.stvincents.com.au/tests/Gilberts.htm

Recently evidence suggests that people with Gilbert’s syndrome may show increased toxicity compared to unaffected individuals following use of medications which are metabolised by glucuronidation in the liver. This has been reported with some anti-cancer agents and also with paracetamol, where they may be more prone to toxicity after paracetamol overdose.

The Liver Fortifying Diet

The liver fortifying diet:

Cut down on the alcohol, salt, caffeine, tobacco, medication, sugar, and fat and stock up on these goodies.  Your liver will love you.

Essential Vitamins and Minerals

Vitamins C and E and minerals zinc and selenium are ‘antioxidants’ shown to aid liver healing. Sources include carrots, tomatoes, peppers, watercress, citrus fruits, berries, wholegrains seeds and oils.

B vitamins and choline are found in egg yolks, liver, legumes and brewer’s yeast and can help liver function.  Make sure your diet contains plenty of green leafy veg rich in folic acid, wholegrains and shellfish rich in vitamin B6, and vitamin B12 foods such as fortified cereals, seafood and seaweed.

 Cruciferous Veg.

Members of the cabbage family have been shown to activate the liver’s cytochrome P450 detoxification process and glutathione conjugation.  In plain English – a process that converts fat-soluble toxins into water-soluble ones, more easy for your body to get rid of.

broccoli cauliflower cabbage
food good for Gilbert's Syndrome

Try include broccoli, cauliflower, kale, mustard greens, radish, brussel sprouts and cabbage in your diet.

Sulphur rich foods.

Garlic, onions, eggs and legumes are rich in sulphur.  They can enhance the sulphuration detoxification process performed by the liver.

Detoxing superfoods.

You should add red fruits, berries, beetroot, and grapes to your diet, as these all help the liver to detoxify and are high in toxin fighting anthrocyanidines.  Papayas and pineapple contain useful enzymes to improve digestion and lemons have a strong cleansing effect.

Helpful Herbs.

Milk thistle, dandelion, turmeric and liquorice have all been shown to aid liver function.  Ginger is also an excellent cleanser.

Good Protein.

The liver needs protein to repair itself, and a diet high in protein gives some people with Gilbert’s Syndrome more energy.  Choose healthy alternatives to red meat such as fish, nuts, pulses and seeds as they are easier to break down and place less of a burden on your liver.

Water.

Once your liver has removed the toxins from your body, you must flush them out of your body.  The only way to do this is to drink lots of water.  Three pints or eight glasses a day minimum!  Although you may find this no problem as some sufferers have expressed how thirsty they seem these days.

itchy skin

Do you find a side of effect of your GS is itchy skin?  A lot of us experience it.  One suggestion why this might happen is that your skin, as the bodies 2nd largest detoxification organ after your liver, is trying to help your ailing liver in the detox process.  Here’s a couple of tips that might help – 1) Skin brushing before your morning shower or bath helps to stimulate circulation and encourage detoxification.  Brush towards your heart using firm strokes. 2) If you’ve over indulged and your liver is struggling, swapping your morning-after coffee with a cup of nettle or dandelion tea will replace lost minerals and support your liver’s detoxification process.

Welcome to the all new Action on Gilbert’s Syndrome web

Welcome to the all new Action on Gilbert’s Syndrome website. We’re currently in development to bring you the latest up to date info on Gilbert’s Syndrome in an easy to access site. If you want updates on our progress just sign up on the right! =>

One in 20 people may have Gilbert’s Syndrome (or possibly more), but only one in three of those will be aware of it, and less than one in three will have any symptoms at all. Most people who have it are men. Sometimes called Gilbert’s Disease, it is not in fact a disease.

Most Doctors use standard reference information that tells them to tell you that Gilbert’s Syndrome is harmless. However, information from scientific studies illustrates that you may experience a number of symptoms, including the most common one of jaundice, and that you need to be aware of certain chemicals, including prescription medication, that you are less able to cope with.

This website offers those with Gilbert’s Syndrome, and their family and friends, as well as the medical profession, further information from published scientific research and shared information from hundreds and thousands of individuals who have Gilbert’s Syndrome.

I hope it helps us all live better with Gilbert’s Syndrome.

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